Regards croisés sur les discriminations

Cet article a été rédigé par Sarah Joubba

On entend souvent que des personnes ont été victimes d’actes discriminatoires. C’est-à-dire qu’elles ont subi une action ou une décision qui a pour effet de traiter de manière négative leur personne.  Qu’elle soit voulue ou involontaire, la discrimination fait tort, à l’égalité des droits, des chances et des devoirs de chacun.

Plusieurs organismes signalent ces conduites, dans cet article, nous allons voir comment les organisations onusiennes aperçoivent la discrimination.

1. L’Organisation internationale du travail

L’OIT  mentionne dans son site officiel dans l’une de ces thématiques intitulée ‘Égalité et discrimination’ que “Des centaines de millions de personnes sont victimes de discrimination dans le monde du travail”, ajoutant à cela que la discrimination menace les principes des droits humains, ainsi qu’elle a des répercussions économiques et sociales néfastes.

2. L’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture

A son tour, l’UNESCO a parlé de ce concept, tout en séparant la discrimination en deux branches : directe et indirecte.

En bref, la première porte sur l’explication suivante:

Lorsqu’une personne est traitée moins favorablement qu’une autre dans une situation comparable en raison de sa race ou de son origine ethnique, de sa religion ou de ses convictions, de son handicap, de son âge ou de son orientation sexuelle.

Par contre la deuxième, dite indirecte, est citée comme suit:

C’est le cas lorsqu’une disposition, un critère ou une pratique apparemment neutre désavantagerait des personnes sur la base de leur race ou de leur origine ethnique, de leur religion ou de leurs convictions, de leur handicap, de leur âge ou de leur orientation sexuelle, à moins que cette disposition, ce critère ou cette pratique puisse être objectivement justifiée par un objectif légitime.

3. L’Organisation internationale pour les migrations

L’OIM a relevé dans son rapport « Migration internationale, santé et droits de l’homme » le principe de la non-discrimination concernant l’accès aux installations, biens et services de santé d’un pays donné.

Différentes formes de discrimination font obstacle à la réalisation du droit à la santé et des autres droits des migrants. Très souvent, les Etats se servent de la nationalité ou du statut juridique pour déterminer qui peut, et qui ne peut pas, accéder aux installations, biens et services de santé. Or, le droit international des droits de l’homme dispose que toutes les personnes, sans distinction, doivent jouir de l’ensemble des droits fondamentaux énoncés dans la Charte internationale des droits de l’homme. Les migrants sont donc protégés par le droit international, indépendamment de leur statut.

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