Dans ce processus de migration, plusieurs acteurs directs ou indirects interviennent. Nous parlons ici des pays d’accueil, des pays de transit, mais aussi des pays d'origine des migrants.

Il n’est plus nécessaire de présenter les mouvements migratoires. Ils sont devenus monnaie courante depuis que le monde est monde.  Alors que de nombreuses personnes quittent leur pays pour des raisons économiques, d’autres se trouvent aussi dans l’obligation de faire ce choix par crainte de persécution.

A lire: Un réfugié est-il un migrant?

Dans ce processus de migration, plusieurs acteurs directs ou indirects interviennent. Nous parlons ici des pays d’accueil, des pays de transit, mais aussi des pays d’origine des migrants.

Qui se délecte des migrations économiquement parlant?

Ces déplacements sont donc liés directement à ces trois acteurs. Par conséquent, il est légitime de savoir qui profite réellement de ces mouvements de personnes vers d’autres contrées sur le plan strictement économique. La réponse serait-elle les pays de transits ou d’accueil où les migrants devraient subvenir à leurs besoins de première nécessité, donc consommer les produits locaux ? Ou les pays d’origine des migrants qui recevraient l’argent envoyé par les migrants   à leurs proches afin de subvenir aux besoins de leurs familles et d’investir éventuellement dans des projets à moyen ou à long terme ?

Après une courte réflexion, beaucoup de questions se posent. A n’en pas douter, la vie du migrant est comme celle de tout homme sur terre, il se nourrit, se vêtit, se soigne etc… La seule différence est qu’il a dû quitter son pays pour des raisons diverses.  Cela sous-entend donc que le migrant effectue de nombreuses dépenses afin de subvenir à ses propres besoins, ce qui constitue un intérêt particulier pour le pays d’accueil ou d’origine du migrant.

Ce qu’en pense le CNUCED

Cette hypothèse est confirmée par la Conférence des Nations unies sur le commerce et le développement (CNUCED), qui dans son rapport de 2018 estime, chiffres à l’appui, que « les migrations sont économiquement bénéfiques pour les pays d’origine et pays d’accueil ».

Avec 19 millions de migrants déplacés au berceau de l’humanité, et les 17 millions qui l’ont quitté pour la seule année 2017, les pays africains ne pourraient que tirer des bénéfices économiques de leurs populations en situation de migration.

D’après ce rapport, « les pays africains peuvent tirer bénéfices de la migration en alignant leurs politiques migratoires, commerciales et d’investissements sur leurs objectifs de développement, en exploitant la diaspora à des fins d’investissements productifs et en adoptant des politiques de travail flexibles afin de faciliter la mobilité des migrants ».

Cela signifie, ipso facto, que la migration africaine n’est pas uniquement un fléau gangrénant les pays d’accueil, mais plutôt un phénomène qui pourrait permettre aux pays d’accueil et d’origine de connaitre de forte croissance économique si celle-ci est sûre, contrôlée et bien encadrée.

Cet article est rédigé par notre stagiaire Icéré Auguste Fagnon.

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